What do Swans Eat? Best Insights for your Kowledge


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What do swans eat? This is a question that most of our readers could be asking. Swans have a graceful demeanor that has captivated the imagination of the human race from the beginning of time. They are admired for their beauty and many other aspects, including their way of life and eating habits.

Many times, these lovely birds will be caught looking for food in the habitat where they live such as on riverbanks, in marshy places, ponds, and lakes. Before we look at the question ‘what do swans eat? lets first get a glimpse of their feeding habits that make them unique from other birds.

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What do Swans Eat

Filter Feeding

Swans are known to be filter feeders. That is, they tilt their bodies into water and dip their long necks to access submerged vegetation. In doing this, they filter out water through their bills that are also specialized for trapping food and letting water pass through.

Many other birds cannot hold food and water simultaneously. The swans are perfect in doing this and they sieve the water through and remain with only food in their bills. How they manage to do this has baffled humanity for a long time, but one can argue that based on the shape of their bills which is a bit flat and chisel-like, swans can quickly get hold of their targeted food with an accuracy unparalleled even to the humans and use the gap at the upper end to let the water out while still clutching at their meal.

This is an art that swans start learning at their tender age or are born with it but perfected with regular habits. It is no wonder a swan can dive in water and within seconds, its seen on the surface with plants in its bill.

READ:Can You Hunt Swans?

Herbivorous Diet

Many fowls feed mainly on grain, but for swans, their diet consists mainly of aquatic vegetation such as algae and grasses found in ponds, rivers, lakes and swamps where these birds live. The swans upend themselves in the water to reach the plants that grow below the water surface.

One would be mistaken for a playing competition when a group of swans complete this task in turns almost subsequently after another. They quickly thrust their necks into the water only to show up with some plants in their mouth.

Those with young ones would be seen trying to teach them how to eat the weeds and within no time, they young ones themselves become masters in the game of upending, a point at which they start to be independent in choosing what to eat from a number of aquatic plants available. When on land, swans often graze on grass and plants that are found near the water ages. They use their strong bills to pluck or pull up vegetation as food.

What do Swans Eat

Group of swans upending in search of food

Offer Food as Present to Mates

World over, very few creatures can show the love that swans depict to their mates. It is understood that swans display elaborate rituals and even offer food to their potential mates as part of their courtship displays. Most probably, this act of love seems like an assurance to their mate to be that they are in safe hands if they agree to pair up as couples. What other reason does this happen if not for the sole purpose of displaying or assuring a duty of care towards their mates. It is no wonder these lovely birds form a permanent bond that is not easily broken.

Their way of feeding is always amazing. More often the swans take a tumble to grasp something beneath the water surface in what is commonly known as upending, a spectacular sight to behold for these beautiful creatures. Sometimes, they are seen in groups hobbling in short grasslands possibly searching for something to eat, or even in fields where some grains or potatoes have been harvested.

Swans Learn how to Feed

In many other bird species, the young ones would be left in a nest as their parents go to search for food. When the parents get back, the chick in the nest would open their beaks wide open for food to be dropped in there. This would continue until the young are old enough to take the first step out of the nest.

The patter is different for swans as they are ready to leave the nest the moment their parents do.  Swans emerge from the eggs as cygnets barely eating anything for between seven and ten days. They then start imitating their parents in the eating escapades.

Most of the time, the cygnets would follow their parents wherever they go tasting everything handed to them. After mimicking their parents feeding behaviours for some time, the cygnets slowly start to find some food for themselves, eventually becoming masters and independent even before they are mature.

Their food Choice Depends on Season

Some swan species live in habitats that are affected by seasons. At one time, its summer and the water surface is accessible, and another, its winter where most parts of the water surface are frozen an inaccessible. During summer, aquatic plants thrive as water and sunshine provide conducive environment for their growth. As such, swans will have their preferred meal which is these plants.

During winter, the plant’s growth is inhibited and so is the ability of the swans to access their favorite meal.  In these times, there are limited feeding options and these birds have to migrate to another habitat or make do with whatever is available. Its during these times that they can turn to eating small sized animals, insects, fish and others not found on their preferred menu.

This feeding behaviour is common in many other animals and bird species, and it’s the reason why animal enthusiasts proclaim the famous adage that lions will eat grass if they don’t get meat. Hence, in the same measure, it would be safe to state that swans will eat grain or potato or fish of there is no pond weed.

So what Exactly do Swans Eat?

From their feeding antics, someone may be left to wonder what exactly makes the most of these birds’ diet. Do they feed on various types of fish that live beneath the water in their habitat, or grasshoppers that are plenty in green grasslands, or other insects that live in these habitats?

Do they eat remnants of potatoes post-harvesting or other small animals like frogs and snails?  Even though most of these assumptions could be true, it is factual that swans’ diet is one of the most unique ones just as the birds themselves. So, what exactly do these birds feed on?

Different Types of Food on their Menu

Swans just like any other bird or animal depend on food for survival. The food they eat gives them the energy to move around and grow into healthy adults right from the time they are hatched. As young swans, the cygnets can survive for the first seven days on the reserves from the egg yolk, after which they are taught by their parents where to get the food or what type of food to eat to get the nourishment that they require.

From a young age, the cygnets may experiment with anything edible that comes their way, hence its safe to say that at least they have several options on their menu. This is so for most animals and birds until they can distinguish what is best, and so are the swans.

The cygnets are known to consume small aquatic creatures like fish, tadpoles or even flying insects that exist in plenty in their living habitats. As they grow older into mature birds, they follow the natural feeding habits of their parents and slowly turn into herbivores. So, is it safe to conclude that mature swans are herbivores?

The answer to this could be both yes and no. in the first case of mature swans depending entirely on plants is that they spent most of their time foraging for food beneath waters only to come up with a stack of plants in their beaks. For this, swans can be considered to be herbivores.

Therefore, in the lakes, ponds, or river banks, these birds feed on aquatic vegetation. The water bodies that swans call home is endowed with different types of terrestrial plants most of which sprout from beneath or on rocks that sit on the beds.

The common plants found in these habitats include algae, pondweeds, water lilies and many types of water grasses. As the swans feed on these, they get important nutrients such as carbohydrates and fiber which are broken down to give them energy and mineral elements required for their growth and healthy living.

What do Swans Eat?

It is common knowledge that most aquatic plants are rich in fibre that is significantly required to aid digestion in these birds. They also contain carbohydrates which is broken down to provide them with energy required for their daily activities and metabolism. In addition, they have protein and other minerals required for the overall wellbeing of these birds.

However, it is noted that even though these plants contain several minerals, they need to be consumed in plenty for their bodies to get the right amounts of protein, carbohydrates, fibre, and vitamins required to grow, get energy and keep warm in the winter or while doing their escapades in water.

It is estimated that a mature swan needs to eat quantities of plants that are equivalent to at least 25% of their total weight every day to get the right levels of nutrients for their huge bodies. This translates to about 4.4 kilograms of plant matter that they have to eat every day.

Secondly, opportunistic feeding is also a common way that helps swans to replenish their dietary requirements. In this feeding type, swans turn to alternative sources of food whenever they are faced with a shortage in their habitat.

As such, they would prey on insects and small aquatic animals albeit when an opportunity presents itself. These animals and insects supply them with proteins and are often caught near the water surface or between stacks of vegetation that swans are foraging on.

The common ones that form part of the swan’s diet include small fishes, frogs, and insects such as termites and ants among others. Hence, since swans eat different types of small sized animals and insects, they cannot entirely be said to depend on plants for their survival.

It is not an easy fete for the swan to get the required quantity of food from aquatic plants even though they are available in plenty. As such, some swans feed day and night to attain these quantities and thus expend a lot of energy in the process.

To supplement the nutrients supply, swans occasionally eat other types of food that are richer in the required elements than the aquatic plants. For instance, fish muscular tissue contains 13% to 20% protein compared to just 4% in most aquatic weeds.

Hence, for faster supply of these nutrients, it will be appropriate for the swan to eat fish and other animals occasionally that solely depend on aquatic animals. Therefore, opportunistic preying on animals, insects or these getting into their diet by chance is one sure way of keeping these birds healthy, energetic and strong.

In other quarters of opportunistic feeding, these birds get their food on land. They are known to crop short grasses but surprisingly enough, they also feed on potatoes, lettuces, spinach, and other leafy greens.

On top of this, they also eat grains such as corn, barley, wheat, and rice. However, this is only common in some parts of the year when these grains are in supply in areas closer to their foraging habitats. As such, swans that live in areas that are closer to human habitats will often be seen patrolling tilled lands looking for grains or in farms where grains have been harvested in search of remnants.


Are swans herbivores?

The swan habitat has plenty of plants and animals that swans can eat. There are algae, pond weed, various types of grasses, fish, mollusks, frogs and insects that have the potential to be on a swans we chain. However, these birds prefer to eat water plants to the animals available at their disposal although they occasionally consume them by chance. Owing to their preference for aquatic plants, swans are commonly referred to herbivorous birds.

Why do swans prefer looking for food in water?

The swans habitat has very few predators that live in water. In fact, a mature swan is threatened by predators the size of a crocodile and are very rare. On land, predators range from domestic dogs, humans, hyenas, wild dogs and predatory birds like owls and eagles among others. Looking for food with little worry of being preyed on is one of the main reasons swans prefer foraging in water bodies.

When do swans eat other type of foods other than aquatic plants?

The main determinant of the choice a swan will have on what to eat is the availability and preexposure to food type from a young age. For instance, swans forage on aquatic plants in times when they are in plenty like during rain and sunny seasons. However, they will turn to alternatives that are in plenty of supply when the plant matter is scarce. This happens in winter and during prolonged periods of draught.

Can swans eat grains?

Even though swans are known to prefer eating aquatic plants, they also eat grains such as corn, rice, and wheat among others. However, this only common in places where swans live in close proximity to where these grains are available as they do not grow wildly on their own.

Can swans be fed and what food should they be given?

Some swan species have been placed in protected parks and are fed by the government entities to preserve their species. Sometimes, the public are given permission to feed these birds as a way of making their preservation cost effective for the governments. It is recommended that swans should be fed on tender grass, vegetables and to some extend grains.


The swan’s habitat is awash with different types of materials that can be eaten by these elegant birds. There are different kinds of grasses and other plants that grow in their habitats and on land. These plants are soft, easy to cut and digest and are food to many water animals including fish, frogs, tortoises, and water birds.

In the water bodies, their lives fish, snails, slugs, newts and other small sized reptiles. These too are creating a food web that animals living in these habitats depend on for survival. On land, several kinds of insect spring out day and night. For instance, ants and termites are plenty whenever there is rain, crickets and other insects live in grasslands while the poop by large animals creates a conducive condition for dung beetles to breed. All these are available at the disposal of the swans.

Despite having a lot of options to have a daily balanced diet, swans are known to prefer aquatic plants and different types of grasses as their main meal and for this reason, they are commonly referred to as herbivorous birds. They forage on algae, pond weed, water lilies and use their serrated beaks to cut grass into sizes that are easy to swallow.

Generally, herbivores depend on plants matter for survival and would struggle to live when conditions lead to shortage. For instance, draught often leads to the demise of many herbivores such as gazelles, antelopes, and even elephants, but instances where swans have died because plants are not thriving is barely known anywhere across the globe.

Looking at this, one can easily be tempted to say that even though swans primarily feed on plant matter, they cannot be entirely classified into herbivores. In fact, these birds truly eat invertebrates such as small water beetles and pond skaters, various sizes of fish, worms and insects among others, hence they should belong into the category of those animals that feed both on plants and other animals even if their main diet consists of aquatic plants. 

The choice of what to eat depends on seasons and climatic conditions that dictate the supply of aquatic plants. The swans will have plenty of water weeds, algae and aquatic grasses during summer or in the days when there is plenty of rain and sun altogether. These conditions enable the plants to thrive in abundance both on land and beneath water and the swans will have an easy time find their favorite food.

Similarly, rain comes with plenty of other food types like insects that these birds can feed on either by chance or whenever they feel like having a diet change. In the winter seasons the plants are submerged in ice and the condition is too cold for plants on land to thrive. In addition, during prolonged periods of draught, the water bodies shrink or dry and the supply of vegetation declines. These conditions force the swans to either migrate to suitable habitats and continue foraging on plants or turn to alternative sources of food such as fish, frogs, and various types of insects among others.

Human activities have also led to changes in diet of swans and other wild animals. Farming has made it possible for grains, potatoes and various types of vegetables to be available to swans living closer to where the farms are located. In fact, their habitats have been destroyed as humans expand arable land leaving them with few food options.  

In some cases, humans have fed bread, corn, and vegetables to these birds especially those put in protected areas and parks. Based on these, the swans have adopted to eating what is available or provided to them by humans be it corn or wheat pallets manufactured in factories.

Putting all these things in perspective, we all should agree that swans will be herbivores when conditions favour growth of aquatic animals and sometimes carnivores when in need of a meal and the only available is fish, insects, and other smaller animals among others. Thus, what they eat depends on the food they are predisposed to from a young age. 

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